Textbook, materials

Main sources for learning are the lecture notes and for background you can use the the below listed scientic papers.


Some more recommended reading

Adam Czajka's biometric cours (Univ. Notre Dame, EN) link

Anil Jain et. al.: Handbook of Biometrics, link (pdfs also available-see instructions at the course))

Czúni László, "Biometria a számítógépes személyazonosításban - vizuális módszerek" (in Hungarian), 2015


Background: the most relevant scientific articles mentioned in the course lecture notes


Fingerprint recognition

                        • N. Yager, A. Amin, Fingerprint verification based on minutiae features. Pattern Anal. Applic. vol. 7, pp. 94-113, 2004
          • Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando, et al. "A comparative study of fingerprint image-quality estimation methods." IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 2.4 (2007): 734-743.


Face detection and recognition - introduction

  • P. Thompson (1980) Margaret Thatcher: A new illusion. Perception, 9, 483-484. Wikipedia link
  • David Marr, Vision: A Computational Investigation into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information. New York: Freeman
  • A. J. Goldstein, L. D. Harmon, and A. B. Lesk, "Identication of HumanFaces," Proc. IEEE, May 1971, Vol. 59, No. 5, 748-760.
  • Sirovich, Lawrence, and Michael Kirby. "Low-dimensional procedure for the characterization of human faces." JOSA A 4.3 (1987): 519-524.
  • Turk, Matthew A., and Alex P. Pentlan"Face recognition using eigenfacesd..” IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1991.
  • G. W. Cottrell and J. Metcalfe. Empath: face, emotion, and gender recognition using holons. In NIPS, pages 564-571, 1990.
  • B. A. Golomb, D. T. Lawrence, and T. J. Sejnowski. SexNet: A neural network identies sex from human faces. In NIPS, pages 572-577, 1990.
  • Taigman et al. “DeepFace: Closing the Gap to Human-Level Performance in Face Verification,” IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2014


Face detection and recognition-Viola Jones, Eigenfaces & Fisherfaces

  • PCA tranformáció leírása (magyarul), forrás: Horváth Gábor: Neurális hálók és műszaki alkalmazásaik. Műszaki Egyetem, 2006
  • P. Viola and M. J. Jones. Rapid object detection using a boosted cascade of simple features Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR ), 2001
  • P. Viola and M. J. Jones.  Robust Real-Time Face Detection. Int. J. Computer Vision 2004
  • Peter N. Belhumeur, João P. Hespanha, and David J. Kriegman. 1997. Eigenfaces vs. Fisherfaces: Recognition Using Class Specific Linear Projection. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 19, 7 (July 1997)


Face detection and recognition- elastic models (SSM, ASM, CAM, AMM)

  • SSM+ASM: T. Cootes "An Introduction to Active Shape Models" appears as Chapter 7: ”Model-Based Methods in Analysis of Biomedical Images” in ”Image Processing and Analysis”, Ed.R.Baldock and J.Graham,Oxford University Press, 2000, pp 223-248.
  • AAM/1: T.F.Cootes, G.J. Edwards and C.J.Taylor. "Active Appearance Models", in Proc. European Conference on Computer Vision 1998 Vol. 2, pp. 484-498, Springer, 1998. (Best paper prize)
  • AAM/2: T.F.Cootes, G.J. Edwards and C.J.Taylor. "Active Appearance Models", IEEE PAMI, Vol.23, No.6, pp.681-685, 2001
  • AAM+Arcfelismerés: G.J. Edwards, T.F. Cootes, and C.J. Taylor „Face Recognition Using Active Appearance Models”, Proc. European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), Vol. 2  pp. 581-595. 1998
  • Prez&Video: T.F.Cootes, Deformable Object Modelling and Matching, Tutorial on ACCV 2010
  • T.F.Cootes, M.Ionita, C.Lindner and P.Sauer, "Robust and Accurate Shape Model Fitting using Random Forest Regression Voting", ECCV 2012


Handwriting and signature recognition

  • A.K. Jain, F.D. Griess, S.D. Connell, "On-line signature verication", Pattern Recognition 35 (2002) 2963 - 2972
  • Putz-Leszczynska, J. (2015), 'Signature Verification: A Comprehensive Study of the Hidden Signature Method.', Applied Mathematics and Computer Science 25 (3) , 659-674


Gait recognition

  • Foreground/background separation: Cs. Benedek and T. Szirányi: ”Bayesian Foreground and Shadow Detection in Uncertain Frame Rate Surveillance Videos”, IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 608-621, 2008
  • Model based/1: B. Kwolek, T. Krzeszowski, A. Michalczuk and H. Josinski,  „3D Gait Recognition Using Spatio-Temporal Motion Descriptors”, 6th Asian Conference, ACIIDS 2014, Bangkok, Thailand, April 7-9, 2014, Proceedings, Part II
  • Model based/2: Rothrock, B.; SeYoung Park; Song-Chun Zhu, "Integrating Grammar and Segmentation for Human Pose Estimation," in IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pp.3214-3221, 23-28 June 2013
  • Silhouette print : A. Kale, N. Cuntoor, B. Yegnanarayana, A.N. Rajagopalan, and R. Chellappa, “Gait analysis for human identification,” in Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, vol. 2688 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 706–714. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2003.
  • GEI: J. Han and B. Bhanu, “Individual recognition using gait energy image,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 316–322, Feb 2006.
  • Lidar based person tracking: Cs. Benedek, "3D People Surveillance on Range Data Sequences of a Rotating Lidar," Pattern Recognition Letters, Special Issue on Depth Image Analysis vol. 50, pp. 149–158, 2014
  • Lidar based gait recognition/1: Cs. Benedek, B. Nagy, B. Gálai and Z. Jankó: "Lidar-based Gait Analysis in People Tracking and 4D Visualization", European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), Nice, France, August 31-September 4, 2015
  • Lidar based gait recognition/2: B. Gálai and Cs. Benedek: "Feature selection for Lidar-based gait recognition", International Workshop on Computational Intelligence for Multimedia Understanding (IWCIM), Prague, Czech Republic, October 29-30, 2015


Iris recognition

  • J. Daugman, "How Iris Recognition Works", IEEE Trans. CSVT 14(1), pp. 21–30, 2004
  • J. Daugman, "New methods in iris recognition", IEEE Transactions on System, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B, Vol. 37, No. 5, pp. 1167–1175, 2007